is used to establish whether the differences exhibited by random samples can be inferred
to the populations from which the samples originated.
is normally distributed
exclusive comparison samples
characteristics match statistical technique
interval / ratio data use Ê
nominal / ordinal data use Ê
of proportions, chi square and related measures of association, logistic regression
(Ho): There is no difference between ___ and ___.
(Ha): There is a difference between __ and __.
The alternative hypothesis will indicate whether a 1-tailed or a 2-tailed test is utilized
to reject the null hypothesis.
for 1-tail tested: The __ of __ is greater (or
less) than the __ of __.
the Rejection Criteria
determines how different the parameters and/or statistics must be before the null
hypothesis can be rejected. This "region of rejection" is based on alpha
() -- the
error associated with the confidence level. The point of rejection is known as the
the Test Statistic
collected data are converted into standardized scores for comparison with the critical
Results of Null Hypothesis
the test statistic equals or exceeds the region of rejection bracketed by the critical
value(s), the null hypothesis is rejected. In other words, the chance that the difference
exhibited between the sample statistics is due to sampling error is remote--there is an
actual difference in the population.