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Table of Contents

 


 

1.2  Reporting Results

The following pages provide an outline for presenting the results of your research.  Regardless of the specific format you or others use, the key points to consider in reporting the results of research are: 

1)   Clearly state the research question up front

2)   Completely explain your assumptions and method of inquiry so that others may duplicate the study

3)   Objectively and accurately report the results of your analysis

4)   Present data in tables that are

a)   Accurate

b)   Complete

c)   Titled and documented so that they could stand on their own without a report

5)   Correctly reference sources of information and related research

6)   Openly discuss weaknesses/biases of your research

7)   Develop a defensible conclusion based on your analysis, not personal opinion

 

Paper Format

The following outline may be a useful guide in formatting your research report.  It incorporates elements of the research design and steps for hypothesis testing (in italics).  You may wish to refer back to this outline after you have developed an understanding of hypothesis testing.

I.                      Introduction:  A definition of the central research question (purpose of the paper), why it is of interest, and a review of the literature related to the subject and how it relates to your hypotheses.

Elements:        Purpose statement

Theory

Abstract concepts

II.                    Method:  Describe the source of the data, sample characteristics, statistical technique(s) applied, level of significance necessary to reject your null hypotheses, and how you operationalized abstract concepts.

Elements:        Independent variable(s) and level of measurement

Dependent variable(s) and level of measurement

Assumptions

Random sampling

Independent subgroups

Population normally distributed

Hypotheses

Identify statistical technique(s)

State null hypothesis or alternative hypothesis

Rejection criteria

Indicate alpha (amount of error you are willing to except)

Specify one or two-tailed tests

 

III.         Results: Describe the results of your data analysis and the implications for your hypotheses.  It should include such elements as univariate, bivariate, and multivariate analyses; significance test statistics, the probability of error and related status of your hypotheses tests.

Elements:        Describe sample statistics

Compute test statistics

Decide results

 

IV.                 Conclusion:  Summarize and evaluate your results. Put in plain words what your research found concerning your central research question.  Identify alternative variables, implications for further study, and at least one paragraph on the weaknesses of your research and findings.

Elements:        Interpretation (What do the results mean?)

Weaknesses

 

V.                   References:  Only include literature you cite in your report.

 

VI.        Appendix:  Additional tables and information not included in the body of the report.

 

Table Format

In the professional world, presentation is almost everything.   As a result, you should develop the ability to create a one-page summary of your research that contains one or more tables representing your key findings.  An example is given below:

Survey of Customers

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Customer Characteristics

 

 

 

Sex

 

Age

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Total (1)

 

Female

Male

 

18-29

30-39

40-49

50-59

60+

Sample Size ->

3686

 

1466

2081

 

1024

1197

769

493

98

% of Total (1) ->

100%

 

41%

59%

 

29%

33%

22%

14%

3%

Margin of Error ->

1.6%

 

2.6%

2.2%

 

3.1%

2.8%

3.5%

4.4%

9.9%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Staff Professional?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

89.4%

 

89.6%

89.5%

 

89.5%

89.4%

89.5%

89.6%

90.0%

No

10.6%

 

10.4%

10.5%

 

10.5%

10.6%

10.5%

10.4%

10.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Treated Fairly?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

83.1%

 

82.8%

83.8%

 

82.6%

83.0%

83.5%

84.3%

87.9%

No

16.9%

 

17.2%

16.2%

 

17.4%

17.0%

16.5%

15.7%

12.1%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Served Quickly?

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Yes

71.7%

 

69.3%

74.1%

 

73.3%

69.3%

72.1%

74.2%

78.0%

No

28.3%

 

30.7%

25.9%

 

26.7%

30.7%

27.9%

25.8%

22.0%

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

(1) Total number of cases is based on responses to the question concerning being served quickly. Non-responses to survey items cause the sample sizes to vary.


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