Univariate
descriptive statistics are used to describe one variable through the creation of a summary
statistic.
Measures
the extent to which one category of a variable outnumbers another category in the same
variable.
Ratio
= f1/f2 or frequency in one group (larger
group) divided by the freq in another group.
Ratio
Example:
1370 Protestants and 930 Catholics
1370/930
= 1.47 or for every one Catholic there are 1.47 Protestants in the given population.
Measures
number of actual occurrences out of all possible occurrences per an established period of
time.
Rate
Example: Create death rate per 1000 given
there are 100 deaths a year in a population of 10,000

Rate
Formula 



100 
X 
1000 
10,000 

10
deaths per 1000 people
Proportions
are a common method used to describe frequencies as they compare to a total (relative
frequencies). A
proportion weights the frequency of occurrence against the total possible. It is often reported as a percentage.
Proportion
Formula 

Occurrence 
Total 

Percent
Formula 



Occurrence 
X 
100 
Total 

Software Output Example
